What is Non-woven Fabric?

Non-woven fabric is a textile material that breaks from the traditional weaving or knitting methods. Rather, non-woven fabrics are produced by mechanically, chemically, or thermally bonding or interlocking fibers together. The result is a flat, porous fabric that can have a texture ranging from soft and flexible to stiff and rigid depending on the processing methods and materials used.

Non-woven fabrics have diverse uses in construction materials, home furnishings, automotive, and aerospace industries, as well as in the manufacture of disposable products like medical masks, cleaning cloths, and wipes. One of their strengths is that they can be engineered to have specific properties such as high strength, breathability, flexibility, or water resistance.

The production of non-woven fabrics involves various methods such as Spunbonding, Meltblowing, Needle punching, and Wet-laid.

Spunbonding is a process that involves extruding fibers onto a moving belt or drum, then bonding them together using heat or chemicals. Meltblowing, on the other hand, involves extruding molten polymer through small nozzles to form fibers, which are then cooled and collected to form a web.

Needle punching involves punching fibers through a base material using a series of barbed needles to create a dense, interlocked structure. Finally, Wet-laid entails suspending fibers in water or other liquid, forming them into a sheet using a screen or filter, then drying and bonding the sheet using heat or chemicals.

Although non-woven fabrics offer some benefits, such as quick and cost-effective production and versatility, they also have limitations, such as lower durability and abrasion resistance compared to woven fabrics.