Biochemistry Dictionary

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Aeration

In the context of biochemistry, aeration refers to the process of exposing a substance, typically a liquid or a solution, to air or oxygen. This...

Acid

An acid is defined as a chemical species with the ability to release or donate a proton, which is essentially a hydrogen ion (H+). This proton...

Anabolism

Anabolism, within the context of biochemistry, serves as a fundamental concept that defines a set of biochemical processes characterized by synthetic...

Acetate

Acetate, a metabolite found ubiquitously in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, represents a key player in cellular biochemistry. Its presence...

Acetic Acid

Acetic acid, a simple carboxylic acid with the chemical formula CH3COOH, holds significant relevance in the landscape of biochemistry and...

Albumen

Albumen, in the realm of biochemistry, serves as a protein fining agent commonly derived from egg whites. It has found extensive use in various...

Amphipathic

The term 'amphipathic' in biochemistry refers to a molecular or compound structure that exhibits both hydrophobic and highly polar (hydrophilic)...

Apoptosis

Apoptosis, a meticulously regulated and orchestrated process of programmed cell death, stands as a fundamental mechanism in the biology of...

Acrolein

Acrolein, within the realm of biochemistry, is a metabolite that holds particular significance in the context of certain lactic acid bacteria...

Allele

An allele is a term used in the field of genetics and biochemistry to describe alternative forms of a gene that occupy a specific position, or locus,...

Aeration-Oxidation

Aeration-Oxidation (AO) is a specific procedure employed in the analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in solution. This method utilizes either air or an...

Acidity

In biochemistry, acidity is a generic term that encapsulates the acid content of a solution, reflecting its capacity to donate protons. This...

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate, commonly known as ADP, is a crucial molecule in biochemistry that plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism. ADP...

AFLP

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) is a molecular biology technique that shares similarities with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism...

Acylate

To acylate, within biochemistry, refers to the process of introducing an acyl group into a molecule. This chemical modification can occur through...

Active Dry Yeast

Active dry yeast, within the realm of biochemistry and fermentation processes, refers to a specific form of commercial yeast preparation. Yeast is...

Amylase

Amylase is a critical enzyme within the realm of biochemistry, belonging to a group of enzymes that play a pivotal role in the hydrolysis of starch,...

Amino acids

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the fundamental building blocks of proteins. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and...

Absorbance

Absorbance, a fundamental concept in biochemistry, elucidates the interaction between molecules and light, offering a powerful tool for the detection...

Acyl

Acyl, within the realm of biochemistry, is a fundamental term describing a specific organic compound characterized by the presence of a carbon atom...

Amide

In biochemistry, an amide is characterized as an amine-containing derivative of a carboxylic acid. This functional group, represented as -CONH2,...

Antibodies

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, represent a crucial component of the immune system, playing a central role in the body's defense against...

Adsorption

Adsorption, in the realm of biochemistry, refers to the adhesion of one substance to another at a surface, driven by electrostatic or ionic...

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl-CoA, a central molecule in cellular metabolism, holds pivotal roles in both biosynthetic and degradative pathways, underscoring its...

Absorption

Absorption, in the context of biochemistry, encompasses a fundamental process wherein one substance assimilates or incorporates another. This...

Aldehyde

An aldehyde, within biochemistry, stands as a distinctive class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group (C=O) attached...

Aglycone

The term 'aglycone' refers to the non-glycosidic or non-carbohydrate component of a glycoconjugate. In biochemistry, glycoconjugates are molecules...

Alcohol

Within biochemistry, the term 'alcohol' serves as a comprehensive descriptor for a wide array of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a...

Acetoin

Acetoin, chemically known as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, is a metabolite with relevance in the context of microbial metabolism, particularly associated...

Alanine

Alanine, in biochemistry, emerges as a fundamental and indispensable amino acid, serving essential roles in the structure, function, and metabolism...

Amines

Amines, in the context of biochemistry, represent a class of nitrogen-containing organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more amino...

Amelioration

Amelioration, within the context of wine production, denotes a crucial process aimed at enhancing the quality of must or juice derived from...

Allosteric

The term 'allosteric' in the context of biochemistry refers to a regulatory phenomenon that exerts control over the activity of proteins,...

Activated Carbon

Activated carbon, within the context of winemaking and biochemistry, serves as a fining agent with the primary objective of removing specific...

Acetaldehyde

Acetaldehyde is a metabolite that holds a significant place in biochemistry, as it is encountered in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic...

Ammonia

Ammonia, in the realm of biochemistry, is a molecule of significant importance due to its role in nitrogen metabolism and various cellular...

Acetobacter

Acetobacter, a bacterium belonging to the acetic acid bacteria group, holds significance in both industrial processes and the context of spoilage in...

Albumin

Albumin, within the realm of biochemistry, represents a general class of water-soluble proteins that play pivotal roles in various physiological...

Acidification

Acidification, within the realm of biochemistry and particularly in the context of processes like winemaking, refers to the deliberate act of...

Amino Transferases

Amino transferases, within the realm of biochemistry, represent a class of enzymes endowed with the remarkable capability of transferring amino...

AMP

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a significant molecule in biochemistry, representing the monophosphate ester of adenosine. Adenosine is a...

Accuracy

Accuracy, in the realm of biochemistry, represents a critical aspect of measurement reliability and precision. It is defined by the degree of...

Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics represents an interdisciplinary field that melds biology, computer science, and information technology to extract meaningful insights...

Cell Cycle

The cell cycle is a highly regulated and orchestrated series of events that cells undergo to replicate and divide. It is a fundamental process in...

Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton is a dynamic and intricate cellular framework that plays a fundamental role in maintaining the shape and structural integrity of...

Continuous Model

A continuous model in biochemistry refers to a mathematical representation that describes a biochemical reaction as an ongoing, continuous process...

Cerebellum

The cerebellum is a crucial component of the vertebrate brain, situated at the rear of the brainstem, primarily beneath the cerebral hemispheres....

Chaperone

Chaperones in biochemistry refer to a class of proteins that play a vital role in assisting the proper folding of newly synthesized or misfolded...

Chromatography

Chromatography is a powerful and versatile separation technique widely employed in biochemistry and analytical chemistry. The primary objective of...

Citric acid cycle

The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a fundamental biochemical pathway in cellular...

Chromosome

Chromosomes are intricate structures within the cell that carry genetic information in the form of DNA. Found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells,...

Differentiation

Differentiation, in the realm of biochemistry and developmental biology, is a profound and intricate process that unfolds during embryonic...

Emergent properties

Emergent properties in biochemistry encapsulate the idea that the characteristics of a complex biological system are not simply the sum of the...

Epistasis

Epistasis, in the field of biochemistry and genetics, refers to a phenomenon where the effect of one gene masks or modifies the effect of another...

Eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotic cells represent a sophisticated and structurally complex category of cells, distinguished by the presence of a membrane-bound nucleus and...

Electrophoresis

Electrophoresis stands as a fundamental and widely used technique in biochemistry, providing a method for the separation of biomolecules based on...

Endophenotype

Endophenotypes are hereditary characteristics that are typically associated with certain conditions or disorders but are not direct symptoms of the...

Fatty acid

Fatty acids are essential components of lipids, which are a diverse group of molecules that play crucial roles in cellular structure, energy storage,...

Flux

In biochemistry, flux refers to the quantity or amount of a substance that flows through a specific unit area within a biological system per unit of...

Feedback loops

Feedback loops represent crucial regulatory mechanisms in biochemistry, orchestrating the balance and control of various physiological processes...

Genomics

Genomics is a multidisciplinary field of study within biochemistry that focuses on the comprehensive analysis and interpretation of genomes, the...

Genome

The genome is a fundamental concept in biochemistry that encapsulates the entirety of an organism's genetic material, encompassing the full set of...

Genotype

Genotype is a fundamental concept in biochemistry that refers to the genetic makeup or the collection of genes carried by an individual or an...

Glycolysis

Glycolysis is a central and highly conserved biochemical pathway that serves as the initial stage of glucose metabolism in living cells. This...

Gene Expression

Gene expression is a fundamental process in biochemistry that involves the conversion of genetic information encoded in DNA into functional...

Haplotype

A haplotype is a concept in biochemistry and genetics that refers to a specific combination of alleles located on a single chromosome. It represents...

Hexokinase

Hexokinase is a crucial enzyme in biochemistry, playing a pivotal role in cellular metabolism by catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose. This...

Huntington's Disease

Huntington's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the genetically programmed degeneration of nerve cells,...

Ischemia

Ischemia is a term in biochemistry and medicine that refers to a condition characterized by an inadequate blood supply to a particular organ or...

Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a chemical element that share the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei but differ in the number of neutrons....

Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a complex physiological condition that occurs when the normal amounts of insulin produced by the pancreas are insufficient to...

Isoelectric Point

The isoelectric point (pI) is a fundamental concept in biochemistry that characterizes the pH at which a particular molecule, typically a protein,...

Irreducible System

An irreducible system, in the context of biochemistry, refers to a complex system whose understanding cannot be fully achieved by studying its...

Interaction Proteomics

Interaction proteomics is a specialized field within biochemistry that employs proteomic techniques to elucidate and characterize the interactions...

Kinase

A kinase is a specialized enzyme that plays a fundamental role in cellular signaling and regulation by facilitating the transfer of phosphate groups...

Kinetic Properties

Kinetic properties in biochemistry refer to the characteristics of chemical reactions or enzymes that dictate the rate at which a reaction...

Lipid Peroxidation

Lipid peroxidation is a biochemical process that involves the oxidative degradation of lipids, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids, by reactive...

Linkage Disequilibrium

Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a concept in genetics and biochemistry that describes the non-random association or correlation between alleles at...

Locus/Loci

In genetics, a locus (plural: loci) refers to a specific position or location on a chromosome where a particular gene or genetic marker is...

Microsomes

Microsomes are subcellular structures that play a crucial role in cellular processes, particularly in the context of eukaryotic cells. These...

Microarray

A microarray is a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology that enables the simultaneous analysis of the expression levels of thousands of...

Mass Spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical technique in biochemistry used to identify and characterize proteins within a complex mixture. It...

Metabolome

The metabolome is a comprehensive and dynamic collection of all the metabolites present in a biological system, encompassing the entirety of small...

Metabolites

Metabolites are small molecules that participate in and result from the chemical reactions that occur within living organisms as part of their...

Metabolic Flux

Metabolic flux is a concept in biochemistry that describes the rate at which molecules flow through a metabolic pathway or network within a cell. It...

Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a crucial molecule in the flow of genetic information within cells, serving as an intermediary between the DNA, which carries...

Macromolecule

In biochemistry, the term 'macromolecule' refers to large, complex molecules that are typically composed of smaller subunits called...

Metabolism

Metabolism is a fundamental concept in biochemistry that encompasses the entirety of biochemical processes within living organisms, essential for...

Multiscale Model

A multiscale model in biochemistry refers to a computational or theoretical framework that integrates information and phenomena across multiple...

Mitochondria

Mitochondria are essential and dynamic organelles found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms, playing a central role in cellular...

Nucleotides

Nucleotides are essential building blocks of nucleic acids, the macromolecules that carry and transmit genetic information in living...

Neurogenesis

Neurogenesis is a captivating biological phenomenon that refers to the generation of new neurons, or nerve cells, in the adult brain. For many...

Neocortex

The neocortex is a prominent and evolutionarily advanced region of the brain, found in mammals, that plays a pivotal role in various cognitive...

Nucleic Acid

Nucleic acids are fundamental biomolecules that play a central role in the storage and transmission of genetic information in living...

Oxidation

Oxidation is a fundamental biochemical process that involves the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom, or ion. This term is central to...

Proteomics

Proteomics, as a field within biochemistry, represents a comprehensive and systematic endeavor aimed at unraveling the structure, functions,...

Pentose Phosphate Pathway

The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), also known as the hexose monophosphate shunt, is a crucial metabolic pathway that operates parallel to...

Phenotype

The phenotype is a critical concept in biochemistry and genetics, representing the observable and measurable characteristics or traits of an...

Proliferation

Proliferation, in the context of biochemistry and cellular biology, refers to the dynamic and essential process of cellular growth and the increase...

Proteome

The term 'proteome' encloses a comprehensive and dynamic concept in the field of biochemistry, referring to the entirety of all proteins present...

Peptide

Peptides are fundamental molecules in biochemistry, representing short chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Amino acids are the...

Plasma

Plasma, in the context of biochemistry, refers to the liquid component of blood that remains after blood cells have been removed. It constitutes...

Polymorphism

Polymorphism, in the context of biochemistry and genetics, refers to the existence of multiple forms or variants of a gene or a genetic sequence...

Posttranslational Modifications

Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) represent a crucial layer of regulation in the intricate world of cellular biochemistry. These modifications...

Quasi-Stationary

The term 'quasi-stationary' in the context of biochemistry refers to a state or condition that is characterized by minimal, if any, significant...

Synaptogenesis

Synaptogenesis is a critical and intricate process within the realm of biochemistry, marking the formation of synapses between neurons during the...

Stochastic

In biochemistry, the term 'stochastic' is employed to describe processes that are inherently random and unpredictable. A stochastic system is...

Shotgun Proteomics

Shotgun proteomics is a powerful and comprehensive approach within the field of biochemistry, specifically in the realm of proteomics. This...

Stoichiometric

In the context of biochemistry, the term 'stoichiometric' pertains to the quantitative relationship between the various substances involved in a...

Synapse

In the intricate landscape of biochemistry, the synapse stands as an important player in the transmission of nerve signals within the nervous...

Transferrin

Transferrin, a vital protein circulating in the blood, plays a pivotal role in the transportation and delivery of iron to cells throughout the...

Triglycerides

Triglycerides, a predominant and vital class of lipids, serve as a fundamental component in the storage and utilization of energy within the...

Transcription Factor

Transcription factors stand as key orchestrators in the complex symphony of gene expression, serving as proteins that regulate the intricate dance of...

Thiamine

Thiamine, also known as Vitamin B1, occupies a crucial role in biochemistry as an essential cofactor for several enzymes involved in the metabolism...

Transcriptome

The transcriptome contains the dynamic and expansive collection of all transcription products within a cell, tissue, or organism, providing a...

Translation

Translation, a fundamental biochemical process, constitutes the intricate synthesis of proteins within a cell. It unfolds as the next phase in the...

Transcriptomics

Transcriptomics stands as a cornerstone in the realm of biochemistry, representing the expansive study of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels...

Transcription

Transcription is a fundamental biochemical process that plays a central role in the flow of genetic information within living cells. It represents...