What is Subpoena?

In the field of criminology, a subpoena is a legal instrument that commands an individual to either appear in court or provide evidence for a trial or legal procedure.

Subpoenas are wielded by judges, prosecutors, and defense lawyers alike, and they are a frequent method of investigation and litigation in criminal cases.

There are two types of subpoenas: a subpoena ad testificandum, which obliges a person to appear in court and give sworn testimony, and a subpoena duces tecum, which mandates an individual to produce documents, records, or other evidence.

Receiving a subpoena puts a person under legal obligation to comply with its conditions; otherwise, they risk being fined or even arrested. Nonetheless, it is possible to contest a subpoena if one believes it is excessively arduous, irrelevant, or violates their constitutional rights.

Subpoenas are employed to collect various types of evidence in criminal cases, such as witness testimony, financial and medical records, and other documentation.

They are often used by prosecutors to establish a case against a defendant, but they can also be utilized by defense lawyers to acquire evidence that supports their client's case.

In conclusion, subpoenas are an essential element of the criminal justice system, as they guarantee that relevant evidence is presented in court and that witnesses testify truthfully.